Emigration of Caucasian Moslems to the Ottoman Empire and Their Role in the Creation of the Turkish Republic

Bozkurt U.

Abstract

Among the reasons that caused and made the migration the Caucasian Moslems to the territory of the Ottoman Empire in the nineteenth century quite long (from the 1860 s to the 1910 s), one can name Russia's political activity in the Caucasus and Crimea. In turn, the Ottoman Empire encouraged the arrival of immigrants in order to increase the Moslem population and protect border security. Naturally, the relocation of such a significant mass of foreign-speaking people was accompanied by some problems. However, both the host country and the immigrants have benefited in many areas. Most of the immigrants assessed according to their qualifications were mainly involved in the military sphere, in construction, as well as in ensuring the safety of railways. They made an important contribution to the development of Anatolian agriculture and animal husbandry. Some of the immigrants quickly adapted to the new situation, became part of the Ottoman society, and even got the opportunity to work in the palace. After the World War I, from which Turkey emerged as the losing side, some of the immigrants were on the side of the palace, and some supported those who advocated the renewal of the motherland. Gradually, the Caucasians assimilated. According to some sources, their descendants today make up about a third of the population of Turkey.

Keywords

Caucasus; Crimea; Ottoman Empire; Caucasian Moslems; «muhajirs»; emigration to Turkey.

DOI: 10.31249/rimm/2023.01.06

Download text